The Romans described an antlered god of the Celts, who they named Cernunnos. With his name meaning the Horned One he has been associated with a number of horned and antlered deities appearing on a number of archaeological artifacts, particularly the cauldron found at Gundestrup. Cernunnoss links with the underworld suggest shamanistic practices of the Celtic peoples, but it is thought that his origins lie in pre-Celtic times.
Also to be found on the Gundestrup Cauldron is an image attributed to the celtic god known as Dagda. He was known as Eochad Ollathair - ‘father of all’ and Ruad Ro-fhessa - ‘lord of perfect knowledge’. He possessed a cauldron which could never be emptied from which no one was ever left unsatisfied.
Part human, part goat, the Greek god Pan, is the god of pastures, forests, flocks and fertility.
He is the personification of raw nature, the essence of Paganism. His worship was originally localized in Arcadia until his adoption by the Athenians, who built a sanctuary for him on the Acropolis.
The Romans identified him with Silvanus and Faunus and spread his faith throughout the Roman World.
Supposedly worshiped by the Templars and said to be the Horned God of the Witches Sabbat, Baphomet was the inspiration for the devil figure in the film The Devil Rides Out. This items are based upon the illustration of Baphomet which appeared in the book Transcendental Magic by the 19th century occultist Eliphas Levi. Levi describes the image thus:- The Sabbatic Goat. The Baphomet of Mendes.
A pantheistic and magical figure of the Absolute. The torch placed between the two horns represents the equilibrating intelligence of the triad. The goat's head, which is synthetic, and unites some characteristics of the dog, bull and ass, represents the exclusive responsibility of matter and the expiation of bodily sins in the body.
The hands are human, to exhibit the sanctity of labour; they make the sign of esotericism above and below, to impress mystery on initiates, and they point at two lunar crescents, the upper being white and the lower black, to explain the correspondences of good and evil, mercy and justice. The lower part of the body is veiled, portraying the mysteries of universal generation, which is expressed solely by the symbol of the caduceus.
The belly of the goat is scaled and should be coloured green; the semicircle above should be blue; the plumage, reaching to the breast, should be of various hues. The goat has female breasts, and thus its only human characteristics are those of maternity and toil, otherwise the signs of redemption.
On its forehead, between the horns and beneath the torch, is the sign of the Microcosm, or the Pentagram with one point in the ascendant, symbol of human intelligence, which, placed thus below the torch, makes the flame of the latter an image of divine revelation.
In medieval times the vision of the Devil, with horns and cloven hoofs, was based on that of Pan. His image was once a common sight in many churches, until they were destroyed during the reformation, along with many other religions figures.